Any temporary files created by PTGui are guaranteed to be removed after closing PTGui. Previously temp files would not be removed if PTGui crashed or was forcefully closed.

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You should now see the file with syntax coloring. Any errors will be marked in red; please be sure to fix them before submitting pull requests.


PTGui is available for Windows and MacOS, with a personal license able to be installed on three computers. The recommended hardware includes 16 GB of RAM, an SSD for image storage, and a card with support for OpenCL — these are all essentially required for a positive panorama stitching experience with any software solution, in my opinion.

Mac: Batch Stitcher and Help window now popup above the PTGui main window, instead of behind it

To open your local copy, select Repository | Show in Explorer/Finder. This is where you make changes in the localization files.


Fixed: on Windows, PTGui would by default use the language selected in 'Regional Settings' in Control Panel. It will now use the language selected in Preferred Languages in Region and Language. This default language can be overridden in Options.

Fix: PTGui web viewer will no longer use CSS3D in Firefox under Linux, due to rendering bugs in this browser

Control Point Table window: control points can now be sorted and filtered. Control point table can be kept visible while working in the main window. Ability to delete multiple control points.


Fix: PTGui crashed on certain systems when doing Help - System Information

Abstract In case of a disaster on a large scale the International Charter of Space and Major Disasters (Charter) provides satellite data from different sensors. Since 2000 more than 140 Charter Calls have proven the great value of this fast disaster response instrument but have also shown different handling problems causing time delay and downgrading the value of rapid mapping products. This paper proposes a framework for a rapid mapping processing chain based on the experiences gathered during the 2005 flood crisis in Switzerland. It focuses on the pre-processing of satellite data, the valueadding step and the visualization of the results. Critical elements are hereby the availability of essential datasets, the processing time, the information extraction and the usability of the products for the end-users. International programs containing rapid mapping elements as PREVIEW or GMES RESPOND and RISK-EOS need further research on the abovementioned topics to improve the usability and significance of their products and to improve the benefit of satellite data for disaster management support.

Pluim JPW, Maintz JBA, Viergever MA (2003) Mutual Information based registration of Medical Images: a survey, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 22 (8): 986-1004. Sutton C, Roberts D, Eldvige C, and Baugh K (2001) Census from Heaven: an estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22 (16): 3061-3076.


The good part is that I found an easier and faster way to clone out the seam in Photoshop. I tried first in the 3D-Panorama-Spherical Panorama Layer. That was hard with an almost 28000x14000 picture. Now I just cut out one side, move around so the ends meet in normal 2D view, then clone out the seam.

The fundamental goal of the symposia was to begin a dialogue on disaster management problems in their entirety by considering geospatial technology applicable to disaster management, user requirements for spatial data and standards. This conference (Gi4DM2007) concentrates on geomatics technologies (satellite positioning, remote sensing, GIS, geodetic and hydrographic surveying). Lessons learned in the last few years have clearly indicated that the prediction and efficient monitoring of disasters represent two critical factors in the decision-making process, and that space-based technologies have great potential in meeting such needs, in a fast, near-real-time fashion. Global navigation satellites and Earth observation satellites have already demonstrated their flexibility in providing data for a broad range of applications: weather forecasting, vehicle tracking, disaster alerting, forest fire and flood monitoring, oil spill detection, desertification spread monitoring, and crop and forestry damage assessment. Monitoring and management of recent natural disasters have also benefited from satellite imagery, such as the Indian Ocean tsunamis in 2004, floods (Austria, Romania, Switzerland, and Germany in 2005), hurricanes (USA in 2005), forest fires (Portugal, France in 2005), earthquakes (Pakistan in 2005, Indonesia in 2006), etc.


From here, it’s easy to load the images into PTGui and begin the stitching process

In association with these three critical areas and in the vicinity of each of them, there are large areas (in light blue) of new ephemeral settlements (increasing ephemeral lights) indicating that earthquake survivors have moved from the damaged areas to other urban areas where damage has been minimal or into open areas. This interpretation is supported by collateral data (NDTV.com). To perform a more robust analysis and reduce the uncertainty of results, improved change detection algorithms should be applied. On the other hand, the use of averaged images helps to smooth out noises. Furthermore, a comparison with the local standard deviation of each image pixel is calculated: a change index C(x) is assigned to each pixel P by dividing its absolute variation by its standard deviation value. This pixel P enters the map of changes if C(P) > 2. The value chosen as a threshold guarantees the geolocation of significant areas of change, simultaneously rejecting most of the false alarms.

Fix: for 360 degree panoramas, the optimizer would not always keep orphaned images together with the panorama. This caused problems when using Align to Grid with 360 degree panoramas.


GPU stitching on the 2021 Mac Pro works again. PTGui is limited to using 2GB of GPU memory on this machine

This file format supports layered output of up to 300,000 x 300,000 pixels, and allows for file sizes of more than 4GB. Supported by Photoshop CS and later.

Fix: PTGui would fail to start up if the default project settings file was corrupt

The NEXRAD precipitation has a better correlation with the rain gauge measurements for heavier rainfalls. Statistical analyses suggest that radar precipitation underestimates the daily precipitation for 62% of rainfall days. This underestimation is more common when the rainfall is small, suggesting that there is more uncertainty in NEXRAD precipitation when it is used to estimate small rain events. The evaluation of spatial patterns of rainfall suggests that radar precipitation shows more continuous patterns than the interpolated surfaces from rain gauges. Among the three interpolated methods, the spline interpolation method generated the surface with the highest average correlation with the radar precipitation. Several recommendations have been made to the two conservation authorities regarding the implementation of NEXRAD in their flood monitoring, water budget analysis, and definitions of regional drought and flood. Firstly, based on our analysis, the NEXRAD precipitation has a good correlation with rain gauges, especially for large rainfall events.


LiPo batteries have a significantly decreased weight compared to NiMH or NiCd packs, as well as the ability to provide higher voltage under load. Each of the 2100mAh, 3-cell packs weigh 142 g for a total of 568 g. Although very dependent on the wind conditions, these battery packs allow the CropCam platform to be airborne for upwards of 55 minutes. This flight time allows for the collection of aerial imagery for an area of up to 640 acres in one flight or the collection of numerous images for the same location as may be the case in some emergency response situations.

Thesis by Woong Kim Smaller

PTGui will use the (new) functionality provided by Windows 10 to create a dark window. Until now PTGui (https://vgtdecor.ru/hack/?patch=1220) had to custom draw the window frame in order to get a dark themed window. This solves a few display glitches and will provide better compatibility with future Windows updates.


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It's now possible to tell the control point generator to look for control points only in overlapping image pairs (Pro version only). This should give a significant speed improvement when aligning gigapixel panoramas and reduces the chances of faulty control points. The images should be roughly positioned beforehand, using Align to Grid, by applying a template or by loading a PapyWizard XML file. This behavior can be enabled using the 'Images are already roughly positioned' flag in Project Settings - 'Align images' behavior. This flag also appears in the Project Assistant when appropriate, after applying a template, after applying a PapyWizard file or after using Align to Grid. Also a new option 'Generate Control Points for overlapping images' has been added to the Control Points menu.

Fixed: PTGui could crash on computers running Windows 7

PTGui belongs to the category of in-depth panorama stitching programs that offer a huge library of features, complex projections (the way your set of images are actually mapped), and powerful tools for adjusting how those images are blended. To get a sense of how much more control is offered, consider these two screenshots comparing the controls offered by Lightroom when stitching and one of the dozens of screens you can access when working in PTGui.


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References Bitelli G, Camassi R, Gusella L, Mognol A (2004) Image change detection on urban areas: the earthquake case. Proceedings of the ISPRS XXth Congress, Istanbul, 35(B7), pp 692-697 Cohen J (1960) A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1): 37–46 Congelton RG, Mead RA (1983) A quantitative method to test for consistency and correctness in Photointerpretation. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 49(1): 69-74 Fung T, Ledrew E (1988) The determination of optimal threshold levels for change detection using various accuracy indices. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54(10): 1449–1454. Hasegawa H, Yamazaki F, Matsuoka M, Seikimoto I (2000) Determination of building damage due to earthquakes using aerial television images. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, CDROM, 8p Kouchi K, Yamazaki F, Kohiyama M, Matsuaka M, Muraoka N (2004) Damage detection from Quickbird high-resolution Satellite images for the 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria Earthquake. Proceeding of the Asian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Manila, Philippines, CD-ROM, 215-226 Lillesand TM, Kiefer RW (1994) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 3rd edn, New York: John Wiley and Sons. Ogawa N, Yamazaki F (2000) Photo-interpretation of buildings damage due to earthquakes using aerial photographs. Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, CD-ROM, 8p Turker M, Cetinkaya B, (2005) Automatic detection of earthquake-damaged buildings using DEMs created from pre- and post-earthquake stereo aerial photographs.

Geomatics Solutions for Disaster Management

PTGui Pro: added Exposure Fusion. The functionality is similar to Enfuse and Tufuse and built into PTGui Pro. To use exposure fusion, go to the HDR tab, enable HDR mode and choose 'Method: exposure fusing'. The Fuse Settings button generates a preview of the fused panorama and provides a way to adjust the parameters of the fusing algorithm. See the updated HDR tutorial for more information.


Additionally, the optimizer will now optimize for lens shift by default. Previouslythis had to be enabled manually in Advanced mode. Optimizing for lens shift can greatly improve the alignment of images taken with a wide angle lens.

Purchase a PTGui license

Fixed: On Windows, if the GPU driver crashes while stitching, PTGui (https://vgtdecor.ru/hack/?patch=1744) would report 'CL_OUT_OF_RESOURCES' errors and PTGui could only be quit by terminating it in Task Manager. The CL_OUT_OF_RESOURCES error itself cannot be prevented, but PTGui (https://vgtdecor.ru/hack/?patch=7667) will now gracefully abort the stitching process. Read more about the CL_OUT_OF_RESOURCES error in the support forum.


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The overall accuracy – the total number of correctly classified divided by the total number of samples – was found to be 71/4%, which is quite encouraging. In this study, we have used the k-nearest neighbor method to classify damaged buildings using training sets of buildings which were selected randomly. The results of the analysis show that using multiple cues can be useful to classify damages which may lead to particular preferences for rescue teams.

Batch Lists files are now supported in the standard version. Previously this was a Pro feature

Fix: Creating large jpeg files could cause a crash. On Windows, 25000x25000 jpeg files can now be created again. On Mac, creating JPEG files of 300 megapixels or more may still fail with an out of memory error. In that case use TIFF format instead.


Fix: PTGui viewer application failed to open 180x180 degree equirectangular images

Fuzzy relation based road extraction method This section describes the proposed road extraction method which follows two steps. Firstly, by using a fuzzy relation based colour segmentation algorithm, the objects in a colour remote sensing are separated and roads are extracted in terms of the colour features of roads.

The registry is no longer used on Windows. When moving PTGui to a different computer, only this folder needs to be copied to keep the entire configuration.


Several cities like Sirsa experienced power cuts due to damage in buildings, electricity networks and power stations (source:NDTV.com). The permanent lights in the region show a reduction after the earthquake indicating widespread damage. However, there were towns like Fatehabad and Hisar mostly unaffected by the earthquake that display an increase of ephemeral lights suggesting that an influx of the population moved from damaged areas like Sirsa.

Fix: Stitching could be aborted with various OpenCL errors, or PTGui could crash

A DEM can be obtained in various ways, for example it can be acquired directly from third party providers, or it can be generated by software with stereo image data sources. The approximate sensor geometric models are derived either from the ephemeris/orbital data for satellite images or from the GPS/INS data for aerial photographs. GCPs, which inherently contain both image and ground coordinates, are required to detect blunders, to control the quality of geometric model, and to refine the approximate model to achieve a high-precision georeferenced result. For the purpose of improving efficiency and for automating the procedure, we select and store a set of GCPs in a database structure. All the relevant information about a GCP and the neighboring pixels that surround the GCP are included as the structure data. This structured data is called a GCP chip, while the database is called the GCP chip database. The purpose of using a GCP chip database is to permanently store GCP chip information that can be easily accessed and reused with new images in an automated procedure.


Crop settings of all images are now linked by default: changes to the crop of one image are automatically applied to all images. One can use 'individual crop' to override the crop settings for an image. Crop linking correctly handles the case where some images are rotated (as is the case when a nadir image is taken with the camera's rotation sensor enabled).

Since 2004, the Ontario government has adopted the Source Water Protection Act. This act requires all conservation authorities in Ontario to maintain detailed catchment-scale water budgets. Due to the low density of weather stations in Ontario, it is almost impossible for a conservation authority to declare a regional drought or a flood alert, because the precipitation varies so widely over the large, lake-influenced areas of Eastern Ontario. Several conservation authorities have been interested in using free NEXRAD precipitation data to track how much rainfall has fallen in their areas. They contacted us to conduct an evaluation study to determine the usability of free NEXRAD data for estimating rain fall in their areas.


Abstract Streets are important component of cities since they provide the best direct impression of the city. Therefore street scenes are important aspect in 3D modeling. Fast 3D City Modeling from a street level can also be quite important for emergency response by providing realistic, updated, accurate information about accessibility to and from affected areas. This paper presents a 3D reconstruction approach for rapid 3D visualization from street level, which is based on a combination of vehicle-based image sequence and 2D vector map. The approach consists of two general steps: the rapid reconstruction of facade along the street based on sideshooting vehicle-based image sequence and 2D map, and road texture recovery using. The algorithms presented are verified by experiments on real data set.

Fixed: PTGui would crash when loading a .png image with indexed colors and transparency

The k-nearest neighbor algorithm assumes that points close to each other in feature space are likely to belong to the same class. It bypasses the density function estimation and goes directly to the decision rule. To apply the k nearest neighbor classification method a function of Matlab 7/0.4 was used. Some sample buildings (fifteen buildings for each class) were acquired as a training set. A direct majority vote from the nearest three neighbors was employed.


PTGui (official site) Pro: behaviour of the Align Images function is now completely configurable (Project Settings tab). You can for example tell PTGui Pro not to choose a suitable projection and field of view, but instead keep the current project settings. This is in particular useful when working with templates.

Glad to hear that about the Mavic Air; I've never used that drone. I've found the automatically stitched 360s from the Mavic 2 Pro to be lacking. Do you have any links to automatically stitched 360s shot with the Air?


When done editing, return to the GitHub Desktop application. Your changes should now be shown in the Changes tab. Commit the changes to your cloned (local) repository using the 'Commit to master' button.

Fixed: PTGui web viewer (Publish to Website) in Firefox 75: the panorama would be visible only while rotating. When stationary, the image disappeared. All newly created web pages from Publish to Website will use the new version of the viewer.


Any generated preview images are deleted when closing PTGui

Fix: PTGui failed to create TIFF files larger than 2 GB. This version can create TIFF files of up to 4 GB (the limit of the TIFF specification). Be aware that many applications (including Photoshop CS2) have trouble reading TIFF files larger than 2 GB.

The spatial resolution of the imagery is critical to the successful classification of such features both in terms of information derived from textural analysis and in the ability to successfully segment landslide features. Furthermore, the data generated in this manner can be used for geomorphic research in terms of characterizing the occurrence of mass wasting within the bounds of the image scene.


Also in this case the time series of OLS images were provided to CRPSM by EUSC. Six images, three pre- and three post-event were analyzed (see Table 2). Table 2. List of images used for the analysis herein described.

PTGui for Mac now requires OS X 10/5 or later. Only one version is distributed for Intel 32 and 64 bit support on all OS versions.


PTGui now reads and writes color profile data in EXR images. Conform the official OpenEXR specification, the color profile is read and written in the 'chromaticities' tag. But note that this is not widely supported.

Since the complexity of the scenes in remote sensing images, the extracted objects always are contaminated by other objects. For example, the shapes of roads can be affected by cars and shadows (formed by trees and buildings) on the roads. Otherwise, some no-road objects having similar colour feature with roads can also be misclassified as the roads. In order to extract roads correctly, some filtering procedures is necessary. To this end, a series of binary morphological operations are used in this study. For example, binary dilation is employed to eliminate the effects brought by cars and shadows. And binary direct dilation is used to clear off misclassified no-road objects having nonlinear shapes (Li et al, 2002). In order to obtain the centrelines of roads, the thinning procedure is carried out (Zhang et al, 1984). Finally, road centrelines are overlaid on the original testing images to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.


Fix: PTGui 7.4 for Mac still included the help file of version 7.3

Mapping Mass Movements using SPOT 5 Data Barlow et al. (2006) demonstrated the utility of image segmentation in the detection of rapid mass movements over a portion of the Chilliwack Basin in southern British Columbia. The area is mountainous with elevations ranging from about 13 masl in the valley bottom to 2 283 m. The basin was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene (Saunders et al, 1987) and shows all of the features associated with alpine glaciation. Oversteepened and drift mantled slopes make debris slides, rock slides, and debris flows (Cruden & Varnes, 1996) fairly common occurrences within the basin. The mapping of these features using satellite imagery has been investigated by Barlow et al. (2003), Martin & Franklin (2005), and Barlow et al. (2006). The data layers used by Barlow et al. (2006) and the classification hierarchy are illustrated in figure 1. The multispectral channels were fused with the panchromatic channel using IHS (Intensity-Hue-Saturation) in order to create a 2/5 m multispectral database (Pohl & Van Genderen, 1998). The imagery was segmented using a ratio of 8:2 for the relative importance of reflectance vs. shape and 7:3 for compactness vs. smoothness. This combination of parameters was established after several iterations in which the produced segments or objects appeared to capture the shape and size of the landslides within the study area. The process made use of an equal weighting of the spectral bands as well as the plan curvature layer. The classification worked by progressively eliminating image objects through four boolean decision criteria. The first step divided objects into vegetated/unvegetated classes based on an NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) threshold of 0/15.

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If multiple temporary folders are configured, PTGui will now attempt to use all folders in a balanced way. This improves performance (similar to RAID 0) when stitching panoramas using 2 or more SSD drives for temporary storage. Previously it would store temporary files on the drive with the most space available.


If the optimization result is very bad, PTGui will offer to do Initialize and Optimize

Table 2 Classification accuracy assessment for SPOT 5 errors of commission (user’s accuracy). The accuracy was determined by taking 20 failures of each type from the classified image and comparing them to the aerial photographs.

An object-based classification approach enables the implementation of additional information as intrinsic, topological and contextual information compared to the traditional pixel-based approach. Furthermore, the integration of thematic data from non- remote sensing sources is simpler (Benz et al. 2004). Our investigation into object-based classification for rapid mapping of flooded areas in mountainous terrain has yielded promising results (Buehler et al. 2005). The classification procedure in the object-based approach can be filed as a processing scheme and reactivated during a future Charter Call with comparable sensors fitted with only few adaptations. These processing schemes are developed, evaluated and enhanced prior to a disaster event. This saves a lot of handling time for a future emergency. A disadvantage of the object-based method is the high amount of processing power and memory needed, slowing down the classification process.


The sugar pine, Pinus lambertiana is the tallest member of the pine family. There were seven of them with a trunk diameter of about six feet (2 meters) surrounding this campsite. The record height is 269 feet (82 meters), and specimens around 200 feet (60 meters) are still fairly common in the old-growth forests of the Sierra Nevada.

To utilize the spectral and spatial information of the available multispectral and panchromatic images of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and QuickBird/Ikonos, and to explore an effective and affordable way for detailed colour 2D and 3D visualization, an image fusion process is integrated into the system. To achieve an effective colour 3D visualization, a colour enhancement technique is employed to make the colour of QuickBird and Ikonos images more natural. The results of this study have demonstrated that it is possible to develop a system for online colour 2D and 3D visualization, using Landsat images and DEMs for low resolution and large coverage visualization, and using QuickBird or Ikonos for detailed visualization of specific areas.


Fix: PTGui would notify that a new version is available even though it was the latest version

The technology is capable of visualizing small scale 3D information in a cost effective fashion. But, it is not possible to generate detailed 3D models to represent the real 3D environment of disaster areas within a short time period and at an affordable cost. Therefore, it is impossible to provide reliable, large scale 3D information for detailed 3D analysis of the disaster areas, when the current 3D online technology is applied. To date, a global coverage of Landsat images and DEMs has been made available at affordable costs, even free of charge for some areas. High resolution satellite stereo images from QuickBird or Ikonos can be acquired on demand for the areas of interest. Based on these major data sources (Landsat, global DEMs, and QuichBird or Ikonos stereo), it is theoretically possible to build a multi-scale global colour 2D and 3D image database. Landsat images and DEMs can be utilized to produce large coverage, low resolution 3D images, while stereo images from QuickBird or Ikonos can be used to produce high resolution 3D images for detailed 3D visualization and analysis of emergency areas. If a new technology can be developed to automatically generate natural colour 3D satellite images at different scales and dynamically visualize the colour 3D images online, the impact of satellite remote sensing on disaster monitoring and management will be significantly increased.

Preview exposure (as set in the Display panel in the Panorama Editor, and the sliders in Mask/Crop/Control Points) is no longer saved to the project file. Preview exposure is reset to 0 when the project is loaded the next time. This was a common source of confusion because it changes the brightness of the panorama in the Panorama Editor but not the actual stitched panorama.


Faster stitching of viewpoint corrected images. Previously PTGui would need to warp all viewpoint corrected images at the full panorama size. The current version is able to determine which part of the panorama is actually covered by each source image and will only render the visible area.

For this purpose, buildings which totally collapsed and were reduced to rubble were labeled as ‘collapsed’ and buildings which were partially collapsed deformed or severely leaning buildings were labeled as ‘partially collapsed’. Buildings without visible damage or buildings whose damage state is difficult to identify were labeled as ‘no damage’.


Fix: PTGui blender could crash for panoramas larger than about 1.5 Gigapixel

Ontario, 257 pp Chen CW, Zebker HA (2001) Two-dimensional phase unwrapping with use of statistical models for cost functions in nonlinear optimization. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 18 (2): 338–351 Li T, Liu J, Liao M. (2004) Monitoring City Subsidence by D-InSAR in Tianjin Area. In: IEEE IGARSS2004 Proceedings, Anchorage Alaska, pp. 3333–3336 Liu GX, Ding XL (2001) Settlement field of Chek Lap Kok airport, Hong Kong, detected by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry.

PTGui Pro: default output file and folder names are configurable per project and per template

This method takes two populations and maximizes the space between them in n dimensional space (Manly, 1994). In example, the highest points within the debris slides mapped in the first case study were taken as initiation points and compared to a population of 2000 randomly generated points. A stepwise discriminant function was then performed between the initiation points and the random points generated across the model surface. For demonstration purposes, we only used geomorphometric parameters such as slope, aspect, profile curvature, plan curvature, and drained area. Aspect was converted into deviation from north and normalized to a value of between 0 and 1 due to the higher occurrence of debris sliding on south facing slopes within this area (Barlow et al, 2007). Maximum separation was accomplished using only slope tangent, plan curvature and deviation from north such that: DF = 0/469(slope tan) – 0/432(plan curve) + 0/727(deviation from north).


Improved 'Delete Worst Control Points'. PTGui 10 was very conservative and would often not remove outlying control points.

Most strings are in plain text format, but some strings are interpreted by PTGui as html

A methodology has been developed by NOAA to obtain sub-pixel spatial resolution from nightlights data that uses a geo-location algorithm that projects the central point of each pixel onto the earth’s surface. Satellite altitude, orbit and a DEM are also considered (Elvidge et al. 1999). The relative lack of operational applications of the nightlights data is probably due to the low spatial resolution. Potential users are not aware of its extremely high sensitivity to the light. This factor plays an important role in the detection of very faint light sources that could be very useful for providing a rapid overview of damage and population dynamics after natural or man-made disasters. The analysis carried out in this paper are based on time series of DMSP/OLS night-time images, covering the Kashmir area (hit in October 2005 by an earthquake) and the Middle East (summer Lebanon-Israel crisis). These images are characterized by a spatial resolution of 1/0 km. According to (Cinzano et al. 2000; Eldvige et al. 1999) this sensor is able to detect a radiance level as low as 1/54 10-9 [W/cm2/sr/Pm] and up to 3/17 10-7. In terms of luminance this means that the sensor is able to detect radiation corresponding to 3/0 mcd/m2. In other words, two unshielded 250 W lamps with 125 lm/W efficiency, placed every square kilometre, are sufficient to produce the required luminance (Cinzano et al. 2000). These numbers give an idea of the sensitivity of the sensor.


The use of UAVs effectively addresses these issues. Unfortunately, until recently the relatively high cost and difficult operation has limited their use in the civilian market. Now a new generation of inexpensive and easily operated UAV platforms has emerged, allowing for the development of new and exciting applications of high resolution aerial imagery and sensors. This paper has evaluated the CropCam UAV platform for the requirements of an ideal remote sensing system for emergency response. This includes the ability to be easily transported and deployed, acquiring high resolution imagery (4/71 cm - 24/74 cm), at a relatively low cost. However, more research needs to be done on new and useful sensors that could be developed and integrated into the platform. It is hoped that the commercial availability of cost effective and stable UAV platforms will foster the development of more applications. Experts in the emergency response and disasters sectors will be able to focus on developing applications rather than platforms. I am confident that with further research and improvements “only our imagination will limit the potential of UAV’s in the 21st century” (Roper and Dutta 2005).

Fix: GPSImageDirection EXIF tag in stitched output had the wrong data type. This caused it to be not recognized by some applications.


Acknowledgements This paper is funded by the key project of Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (project No: 40534021), the key project of the Ministry of Land & Resources, China (project No: 1212010440410) and general project of Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (project No: 40672173). The SAR images are provided by ESA and track 161 data are provided by ERS category 2 of Eurimage. We are also grateful for the provision of SRTM DEM, DELFT precise orbit data and SNAPHU phase unwrapping software, all of them are provided freely.

However, Landsat series does not collect stereo images, so that it is not possible to generate colour 3D images directly using Landsat imagery. An alternative solution was found and an automatic software tool was developed which can reconstruct Lansdat colour 3D images using available Landsat monoscopic images and corresponding DEMs.


We use two extracted cues from object space (volumes) and image space (edges). Comparing Digital Surface Models (DSMs) of the before and after earthquake situation is one of the method to extract appropriate information. For this purpose, DSMs were created automatically from both pre- and post-earthquake aerial images at 1m spatial resolution using the DSM tool of VirtuoZo (Supresoft, v. 3/3). The DSMs generated were then assessed. The accuracy of the DSMs would directly affect the reliability of automatic detection of the damaged buildings. To evaluate the DSMs, all buildings corners, streets lines, and some single points on the roofs are manually measured which considered as three dimensional check points. The heights of these points were measured on DSMs to be assessed and compared with their corresponding heights measured manually on stereo models. The mean, max and root mean square error values for checkpoints in pre- and post-earthquake DSM differences are given in Table 1. Table 1 Statistics of height differences in checkpoints.

Batch Lists files are now supported in the standard version. Previously this was a Pro feature.

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Fix: PTGui would give an error if a photoshop file was created with individual layers for only one layer

Gotta love iframe, really allows for some cool additions to wordpress. Thanks for sharing your workflow, that doesn't sound bad at all. I just got back into web dev a few months ago and started from scratch. Bought a dedicated server, installed the base OS, installed/configured a linux VM WP appliance, then I finally started playing with WP and went full bore into using elementor.


Fix: Pressing F5 while editing in Image Parameters table would cause PTGui to hang

In the image-to-map rectification process the unregistered image is corrected to ground control points either collected from an existing map or from field data collected using a GPS. This method can be much more time consuming and possibly dangerous if personal have to physically collect the ground control coordinates. The ArcGIS® v9/1 Georeferencing tools were used to georeference the mosaiced imagery. This software offers a very easy user interface that allows the user to select ground control point that can be visible in both the unregistered and registered image. Once this is completed the transformation process can be executed resulting in a new image georeferenced to a known coordinate system, such as the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system.

Paste Mask now merges the pasted mask with the existing mask. Previously pasting replaced the existing mask completely. The former behaviour can still be replicated by pressing the Clear Mask button before pasting.


Just an happy pro-sumer’s take on raw converters editing software

Control point generator works well with 32 bit HDR source images. In PTGui 10 it was often necessary to add control points manually.

The PTGui stand alone panorama viewer now uses Lanczos pixel interpolation, resulting in a sharper image

Thus, what we can reasonably estimate is the amount of population residing in the area effectively stroked by war actions where living is not anymore possible because no electric power is guarantee. Possibly those people will correspond to the ones who, still some time after the crisis’ end, will stay far from home as refugees or as internally displaced people.


We are targeting on processing large data set for enterprise level usage. Beside the correctness of the algorithms, the critical consideration includes efficiency of data accessing and storage capability. In our system, Oracle 10G has been used as the central data storage and all the raw, intermediate and final results of the procedure are stored in the Oracle database and accessed through PCI vs Oracle interface engine.

PTGui Viewer: Fix: on iPhone4 and iPad2 the viewer would only work properly after reloading the panorama

Abstract This paper presents a new automatic system for fast generation of multiscale colour 2D and 3D satellite images and for online dynamic visualization of the 2D and 3D information of the areas of interest. Mediumresolution satellite images such as Landsat 7 and high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos or QuickBird are the main data sources for the multi-scale 2D and 3D images. Since Landsat imagery has a global coverage and the Ikonos and QuickBird images can be acquired quickly for the areas of interest, the generation and online visualization of global colour 2D and 3D satellite images at different scales is possible. Ground objects from mountain ranges, such as Rocky Mountains, to individual family houses and trees can be dynamically visualized and analyzed in 2D and 3D through the Internet. The system presents a great potential for fast and effective visualizing, monitoring, and analyzing disaster situations in 2D and 3D within a short time period, which can provide decision makers with important information for emergency response and disaster management. The concept of the 3D satellite image generation and online dynamic visualization are presented in this paper. Some examples on the potential of using online 3D for disaster management are given.


PTGui Pro: new option in Project Settings - Template Behavior: 'Preserve original orientation of the panorama'. If enabled, PTGui tries to preserve the orientation of the panorama as a whole, even if the template modifies the yaw/pitch/roll of individual images. It first applies the image positions from the template, but then the panorama is moved/rotated as a whole (without modifying the relative alignment between images) such that the images are positioned as before applying the template as much as possible. This is useful if the images have been positioned using orientation sensor data: the template will fine tune the relative alignment of the images, without affecting the overall levelling of the panorama.

The fields and structure are documented in the JSON schema. A JSON schema aware editor such as VS Code (see below) will show tooltips and syntax suggestions while editing.


The advantage of this method is to automatically determinate the number of classes in segmentation. In most of situations, it is difficult to specify any desired number of clusters. For example, the situations often happen in the segmentations of remote sensing images, because the ground truth is always not available for the scenes covered by those images. The proposed method is examined by extracting road networks from QuickBird and IKONOS imagery. The results show that the proposed method for road extraction is very effective. In order to illustrate the accuracy, the extracted road centerlines are overlaid on the original images.

The number of sensors is limited, however, by the airframe’s payload capacity. On the current platform, any payload that is heavier than six pounds would result in instability in the flight characteristics and particularly in an increase in the stall speed of the aircraft, resulting in very difficult landings. As well the added weight would increase the amount of strain on the motor batteries resulting in much shorter flight times. As evaluated, the test platform includes a Pentax Optio S5i colour digital camera. The Optio 5si was selected for its infrared sensor, which is intended to allow users to take photographs using the optional remote control. On arriving at specific locations or coordinates, the platform is instructed to trigger a specific servo.


New: If the images of a project cannot be found, you will be prompted for the new location. This allows you to move a project to a new directory.

Context menu in the Panorama Editor and Detail Viewer: right-click anywhere in the panorama and a menu pops up. From this menu you can jump to the corresponding point in the Mask or Control Points tab. Images can be included/excluded through this menu as well.


Franklin (2005) demonstrated that textural analysis of landslide scars may be capable of discriminating between rock slides and debris slides although the spatial resolution of image data was a limiting factor. Barlow et al. (2006) used a similar approach using high-resolution data and obtained classification accuracies of 80% or higher for debris slides and rock slides. A similar approach has also proven successful for the mapping of snow avalanche tracks in the Canadian Rockies (Barlow & Franklin, 2007). The innovation provided in the use of image segmentation is the ability to assign specific geomorphometric properties to differing image objects in order to place them within their geomorphic context. Both the landslide and avalanche studies will be discussed in more detail below though the use of two case studies: (1) the identification of mass movements using high resolution SPOT 5 data and (2) mapping snow avalanche tracks using Landsat TM data.

By default the file will be shown as Plain Text. In the status bar, at the bottom right, click on the 'Plain Text' field.


Mac: now supports drag & drop of image files onto the PTGui icon in the Dock

The altitude of the Fort Drum station is higher than the highest elevation in the study area. An elevation check shows that no mountains block the radar beams to the study area. NEXRAD precipitation products typically use data from the lowest of the four radar tilts with no significant beam blockage (Morin et al. 2003). Therefore, the first four tilts (0/5q, 1/5q, 2/4q, and 3/4q) of the radar beam from the FDX should be useful for the study area. The initial intent of this study was to obtain the most recent rainfall data; however, due to the lack of rainfall prior to the start of our study, a different time period had to be selected. To find time periods with a relatively high number of rainfall dates, we searched the Environment Canada database. Five months (May and July 2002, May and June 2003, May 2004) with a high percentage of consecutive days with large amount of rainfall were selected to compare the radar precipitation data with rain gauge measurements. The most time-intensive aspect of the analysis involved the preprocessing the radar data extracted from the NOAA website. The radar data used in this study had to be accessed through the NOAA archives, given that the NOAA website posts only records for the two most recent days. The variable examined was THP, the three-hour total precipitation.

In the US, a personal license costs $156, while the Pro version is $311

When loading a project or adding images, PTGui initially attempts to load the thumbnails embedded in the image file (if available). This gives a nearly instant panorama preview, even for panoramas consisting of hundreds of images.


Manufacturer description: PTGui (https://vgtdecor.ru/hack/?patch=1595) is panoramic stitching software for Windows and Mac OSX. Originally developed as a Graphical User Interface for Panorama Tools (hence the name), PTGui (https://vgtdecor.ru/hack/?patch=271) now is a full featured photo stitching application.

Lilesand T, and Kiefer R. (2000) Remote sensing and image interpretation 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY, pages 35-37. Mehrotra S, Butts C, Kalashnikov N, Venkatasubramanian N, Rao, R. Chockalingam G, Eguchi R, Adam B, and Huyck C. (2004) Project rescue: challenges in responding to the unexpected, Journal of the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE), vol 5304, pages 179-192. Roper W, and Dutta S. (2005) Remote sensing and GIS applications for pipeline security assessment, proceedings 25th Annual ESRI International User Conference, July 25-29 2005, San Diego, CA. Shaw L. (2007) MicroPilot Incorporated, personal correspondence.


However, a larger horizontal parallax will cause difficulties in depth perception and stereo fusion problems. Therefore, the overall horizontal parallaxes should be maintained in a limited range for an acceptable stereo fusion (Carr 1993).

Fix: Feather width, d and e parameters were not loaded correctly from a PTGui project

The first theme can be categorized as chronic while the second is episodic or periodic (Bryant, 2005). Chronic hazards include desertification, soil degradation, and melting of permafrost. The cause could be due to humans or global warming. Peridic hazards are large magnitude events that appear over a short time period. They include phenomena such as earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and flash floods. Human choose hazardous areas because they often offer benefits. For example, floodplains provide easily cultivated agricultural land close to a water supply. Humans in these environments are forced to predict and avoid natural calamities such as landslides, cyclones, earthquakes, and drought. A recent example is the December 2004 Tsunami, which caused a large area coastal flooding in various countries namely Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Thailand, etc.


After spipolar images are generated, colour 3D (or anaglyph) images can then be generaten by superimposing one colour band from one image with two colour bands from another image of the epipolar stereopair. The criterion of superimposing in the horizontal direction is to compel the smallest horizontal disparity of the matching points to zero.

I typically will finish my panoramas in Photoshop, so I love the PSB option. As a bonus, PTGui can output the individual frames as layers atop the finished panorama, letting you easily blend in singular elements or touch up any problem areas.


New option 'Masking pushes back seams' in Panorama Editor - Blending tab (PTGui Pro). This controls the location of the seams if optimum seam finding is disabled and masks are placed. If this option is checked, a mask will 'push' the seam away (as was the case in PTGui Pro 11). If disabled, the seam will stay close to the middle of the overlap area even if masks are nearby.

The 'tooltips' section contains the text of all tooltips. The 'helptext' and 'morehelptext' fields in this section contain HTML formatted text. The 'morehelptext' is shown after the Shift key is pressed.


Geological Survey (USGS), respectively. In the near future, German TerraSAR, Italian Cosmo and the Chinese/Brazilian CBERS Satellites will join the Charter too. These satellites resources have increased the temporal resolution of appropriate data during the last years substantially. The availability of valuable data with spatial resolution better than 10 m is adequate today and will further improve. Especially in remote regions with poor accessibility, satellites are the best and in most cases only source available for up to date and reliable geo-information on a large scale.

New setting in Options: maximum number of concurrent disk accesses. This limits the number of threads that will simultaneously access the disk for reading/writing temporary files. Can help to prevent disk thrashing on systems with fast CPUs where disk speed is the bottleneck.


Cutline selection is one of the most important steps. An optimization model for computing cutlines can be set up, which includes a cost function of a criteria and a set of constraints on a set of overlapped ortho images. We use optimal programming algorithm to solve the model and get polygon shaped cutlines for each ortho image.

Changes in the way external viewers are configured: In Options/Preferences - Advanced now up to 3 applications can be configured. These applications will be shown in the popup list under the View button (Create Panorama tab) and Preview button (Preview tab). The new PTGui Viewer is always included for equirectangular panoramas.


A combination of SPOT 5 and DEM data was acquired to develop an automated system to detect and classify rapid mass movements that were fresh and over 1 ha in area in a high mountain region in British Columbia. The method yielded an overall accuracy of 77% for all rapid mass movements. These features were further divided according to the classification system of Cruden & Varnes (1996) into debris slides, debris flows, and rockslides; the process specific classification accuracies were 90%, 60%, and 80% respectively (Barlow et al, 2006). The use of Landsat TM data with a similar set of DEM derivatives proved capable of mapping snow avalanche tracks with an overall accuracy of 79%. This was due to the distinctive land cover associated with these features as well as their shape characteristics and orientation on the landscape. These results strongly support the viability of using satellite remote sensing data and digital elevation models to map slope processes. The ability to generate accurate maps of slope processes allows for great efficiency in data throughput to geomorphic research. Here we have demonstrated the use of an automated debris slide inventory in the quantification of slope instability in the Chilliwack Valley, British Columbia. Such research is critical in the identification of unstable slopes and the estimation of landslide hazard to human populations.

In: van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Fendel E (eds) Geo-information for Disaster Management, Springer, pp 171 – 180 Li M, Liew S, Kwoh L (2003) Producing cloud free and cloud-shadow free mosaic from cloudy IKONOS images. IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Vol. VI, pp 3946-3948 Lillesand T, Kiefer R (2000) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation.


Rates of rainfall can change dramatically over space and time, particular during convective events due to lake effect. The mean annual precipitation within the study area ranges from 892 mm at Belleville to 1027 mm at Glenburnie (Table 1). For the conservation authorities to declare a regional drought or flood alert using the rainfall data from the limited rain gauges is almost meaningless. For that reason, spatial distribution of the rainfall is needed. Conservation authorities have expressed a need for more precipitation gauges all over the region. However, that is financially impossible.

However, there may be non-visible parts due to shadows or occlusions. Nevertheless, in the case of urban damage assessment, remotely sensed data offers significant advantages over traditional methods of field survey. Furthermore, about 75% of fatalities related to earthquakes are due to the collapsed buildings (Bitelli et al. 2004). On the other hand remote sensing data is acquired at low risk and offers a rapid overview of building collapse across an extended area, which is quite important for emergency management and recovery works. Visual interpretation has a high degree of reliability but is timeconsuming. Automation could be a way for eliminating the timeconsuming procedures which are usually carried out by human operators. The challenge is to replace visual interpretation of optical remote sensing images, accomplished by expert photo-interpreters, with automatic or semi-automatic classification techniques.

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Fix: PTGui crashed upon startup on Mac OS 10.5

Right clicking in the Panorama Editor or in the Detail Viewer will bring up a contextmenu. From this context menu you can quickly jump to the corresponding point in theMask and Control Points tabs.


In PTGui, the first step is to load the images. If your images have EXIF metadata, PTGui should be able to automatically recognize your lens and camera, calibrating those specific settings for you. From here, you can click to align images: this aligns the images via control points, connecting each pair of images at specific points. While you can tweak these points manually, I’ve not yet found an image out of place.

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New TIFF output setting: alpha channel. Defines the way in which the alpha channel is tagged in the TIFF file, and allows to create a stitched result without transparency.

Fix: PTGui Pro failed to load certain .hdr files

Batch Stitcher: new function File | Append Batch List. This adds all projects from the selected Batch List to the currently active Batch List.


Keep in mind that JSON does not permit multi line strings, therefore line endings should be entered using the \n escape sequence (in plain text strings) or <br> (in HTML texts). Also, double quotes should be escaped with a backslash: \".

PTGui command line can contain one or more image filenames. This will create a new project from these images

There is some good info in the Preparation Guide on how to make full backups and how to restore it back if something goes wrong. Read the tutorial and print it out so you will know what to do in case the unforeseen happens.


ISSN 1863-2246 ISBN 10 3-540-72106-1 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN 13 978-3-540-72106-2 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York Library of Congress Control Number: 2007924820 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law.

Fix: Upon startup, the panorama editor and cp table would always be visible. Now the state of the previous session is restored.


Zhang, T. Y. and C. Y. Suen, 1984. A fats parallel algorithm for thinning digital patterns. Communications of the ACM, 27(3), 236-239.

Fix: Pro: Exposure correction did not work when a project was stitched in the batch stitcher

The registration key for a company license can now be stored for all users on the current computer. To do so, go to About - Register and re-enter your existing registration key.


Fixed: PTGui on mac could crash when adjusting the zoom level in the Control Points, Crop or Mask tabs

One major takeaway from using the software: it’s fast. It opens almost instantly, buttons are incredibly responsive, and even dynamically adjusting the panorama in the preview happens instantly. I was primarily testing on a midrange 3700x and RTX2070, with 32 GB of RAM and NVME SSD, but it scaled down well to an older unibody Retina MacBook Pro, and remained perfectly usable. Continuing with the topic of speed, some of the processes are so quick that when I first ran them, I thought they failed to load, only to realize they actually are already done. Stitching 20 45 MP images and generating the resulting PSB can be done in 20-ish seconds. Somehow, it can stitch and save a PSB faster than Photoshop can save the file alone.

Considering the high correlation between the radar precipitation and rain gauge measurement, we can use the spatial pattern shown in the NEXRAD data to evaluate which interpolation method can generate the best pattern. Table 3 lists the correlation coefficients of the radar precipitation surface and the interpolated surfaces using different methods, from twenty randomly selected daily rainfall data in the data set. To our surprise, the spline interpolation method, not the Kriging, yielded the best interpolated rainfall surfaces, although the differences of the correlation coefficients were not significant.


Professionals and decision makers can join the analysis of the disaster situations remotely through the Internet, which can significantly increase the response speed. Because colour 3D information of the real situation can be visualized timely by the system, more useful information can be obtained through the system than through other systems, such as Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth.

Fixed: PTGui failed to read certain LZW compressed TIFF files

Fix: When using 'Fit Panorama' on source images rotated approximately 45 degrees, the top and bottom part of the panorama would be cut off. Same problem occurs after the panorama has been set up through Align Images.


Eq. 2 can be used to evaluate the interferogram quality. The coherence is high in urban areas and very low in vegetation areas. It has been clearly demonstrated in the test region of Xi’an city that nearly 80% are high coherence which mostly covers the interested areas.

In the following we describe briefly some of these restrictions. Damages at buildings are generally described based on damage classes. This may differ from country to country.


One fringe corresponds to half wavelength (2/8cm of ERS data) displacement. In the case of vertical motion, one fringe is associated with 3/0 cm of motion as the incidence angle of ERS is about 23q (Raucoules et al. 2003).

I would like to do stitching/photomerge in Lightroom and Photoshop only. I got good result when merging and editing in Lightroom, EXEPT it does not merge the "ends" of the 360 good. I get a visible seam there and it takes forever to edit/clone it out. Maybe I have to use other stitch sw like PTGui, I was hoping to that was not needed.


A new Post Processing side bar was added to the Panorama Editor for adjusting the toning curve, white balance and saturation. This is useful in particular when working with RAW source images. The white balance and exposure adjustment sliders have been moved from the Exposure/HDR tab to this Post Process side bar.

Figure 1 illustrates the major components of the system for the generation of medium resolution Landsat colour 3D images and high resolution colour 3D images using QuickBird or Ikonos stereo pairs, as well as for the online visualization of the 3D images. Because Landsat can not collect stereo images, the medium resolution 3D images are reconstructed using monoscopic Landsat images and the corresponding DEMs, while the high resolution 3D images are constructed using stereoscopic QuickBird or Ikonos images.


Abstract Differential SAR Interferometry (D-InSAR) technique has been used to monitor the land subsidence evolution in Xi’an, China during the period of 1992 to 2005. Three schemes have been made to detect the three subsidence stages, namely, stage I 1992-1993, stage II 1996-1997 and stage III 2004-2005. And annual subsidence rates have been calculated in three schemes which uncovered the land subsidence evolution in Xi’an from 1990s to now days. The D-InSAR results show that the maximum subsidence rate was up to 20m/a in the 1996, and decreased greatly from 20cm/a in 1996 to 5cm/a in 2005, which mainly owing to the controlling of underground water withdrawal policy in 1996s. For the lack of traditional monitoring results, only the first stage of D-InSAR result has been compared with leveling result, which demonstrated high consistence each other.

New button: "send to batch stitcher". This replaces the "stitch using batch stitcher" settings in Options. When a batch stitcher is running, the project is added to the list of projects in the batch stitcher, instead of launching a new instance.


PTGui now uses the regular font size by default. A smaller font is configurable in Preferences

Some areas of significant change are clearly detected (light green pixels). As mentioned above, these areas have been obtained assuming as affected by a real change the pixels where 'L (see Eq. 1) is negative and lower than 30%. These areas correspond to the region near the IsraelLebanon border where mainly the Israeli bombing activity was concentrated and south of Beirut.

Fix: Mac: if image filenames were passed on the command line, each image would be opened twice in PTGui

There’s a variety of options for creating panoramas. Lightroom and Photoshop both have it built in, not to mention the variety of standalone programs. One, however, stands far above the rest: here’s the best program to get if you want to create panoramas.


As said above the number of them in December was quite similar to the number of people residing in areas where the night-lights changes were significant (200,000 versus 198,538). This result seems to confirm the utility of using night-time images to promptly estimate the amount of persons potentially affected by a disaster. Let us say something more about the night-light changes in the city of Beirut, of course the following considerations can be applied to almost any “bright” city in the world. As a consequence of its high sensitivity the OLS sensor can easily reach the saturation level in correspondence of cities in developed countries.

Fixed: PTGui would use 'circular fisheye' for the tokina 10-17 at 10mm, while it could use fullframe fisheye

I personally love this level of control. I feel it would work well on any screen size. On small screens, flip between the two windows maximized to full screen, while on a single large screen, you can run them side by side and give each a dedicated monitor on a multi-monitor setup. There’s a slight learning curve to some of the buttons, especially if you’re new to panoramas, but fortunately, the hover-text is usually pretty explanatory.


The format is also hard coded in PTGui, therefore the format field should not be changed

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS). However, in the case of DMSP/OLS, the availability of a series of satellites arranged in a constellation and the width of the sensor’s swath allows Earth coverage twice nightly. This can result useful in the aftermath of a natural disaster such as earthquake, when first responders providing relief action need to know the location and the extent of the areas of damages, the potential amount of population involved and the place where survivors are concentrated. Naturally, after this prompt detection of the areas affected by the event, the corresponding very high spatial resolution satellite images can be acquired to obtain an accurate overview of the actual damages. In fact, the availability of a preliminary fast estimate of the areas mainly impacted can support a suitable selection of the very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images acquisition time because these sensors are characterized by a very small frame size that makes unpractical a blind acquisition of the whole region possibly impacted. This way to proceed is also compatible with the longer time usually needed to obtain a VHSR image of a given area of interest, due to the orbital and observation geometry constraints. Even if it is high, the OLS sensor’s sensitivity could be insufficient to detect settlements with reduced artificial lights, as is often the case in the selected regions of interest.

One of the most obvious characteristics of rapid mass movements is their dependence on gravity. Failure tracks tend to follow the path of steepest descent (fall line) down a given slope. The geomorphic context of an image object is therefore a useful tool in the classification. The orientation of the long axis of an object on the slope was used to separate those that ran roughly parallel to the fall line to those that extend across the slope.


National Weather Service (NWS) began installing the Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D (NEXRAD) system in 1988. NEXRAD comprises 158 weather surveillance radar–1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars across the United States. The WSR-88D radar sends out radar beams at several different altitudinal scanning angels using a 10 cm wavelength (S-band) and penetrates the atmosphere and rainfall with little attenuation over long distances. The ground-based radars then receive radar signals bouncing off of precipitation.

This paper presents a new automatic system for fast generation of multiscale colour 3D satellite images and for online dynamic visualization of the 2D and 3D information of the areas of interest. Medium-resolution satellite images such as Landsat 7 and high-resolution satellite images such as Ikonos or QuickBird are the main data sources for the multi-scale 2D and 3D images. Through the system, objects on the Earth’s surface from mountains to individual family houses and trees can be dynamically visualized and analyzed in 2D and 3D on the Internet. It presents a great potential for fast and effective visualizing, monitoring, and analyzing disaster situations in 2D and 3D within a short time period, providing important information for emergency response and disaster management. The concept of the 3D satellite image generation and the online dynamic visualization are presented below. Some examples on the potential of using the online 3D for disaster management are given.


Introduction Accurate precipitation data are important for flood forecasting and regional water management. Traditionally, rain precipitation has been monitored at ground rain gauges placed at different locations. However, this type of monitoring network cannot capture spatial variation and patterns of rainfall, especially for regions with complex terrain (Young et al. 1999; Morin et al. 2003; Vieux and Bedient 2004). The development of remotely sensed weather radar data has greatly advanced the forecast of spatial pattern and rainfall quantity over large areas in a time-efficient manner (Maddox et al. 2002; Bedient et al. 2003).

Details on fuzzy set and fuzzy logic can be found in Gottwald (1979), Dubois and Prade, (1980), George and Bo (1995). Let X = {xi, i Ӈ I, I = {1, 2, n}} be a finite set. A binary relation on X is a subset of the Cartesian product X×X, that is, R(X, X) Ի X×X. On the other hand, a relation can also be defined by a characteristic function which assigns a value of 1 to every 2-tuple of X belonging to the relation and 0 to every 2-tuple no belonging to it as follows.


PTGui 1.00 would freeze occasionaly on some systems. This has been solved

Most research has examined the use of conventional aircraft or satellite systems to collect such imagery. Unfortunately, both have a limited ability to provide accurate and timely imagery in emergency situations. Thus, alternative methods of acquiring imagery for emergency response need to be evaluated. Mehrotra et al. (2004) outline the goals of an imaging system for emergency response which “aims to enhance the mitigation capabilities of first responders in the event of a crisis by dramatically transforming their ability to collect, store, analyze, interpret, share and disseminate data”. The authors detail the incorporation of a variety of information technologies including aerial image processing.

Fix: After installing nvidia GPU driver 378.49 on Windows PTGui would output corrupted jpg images

As December 1 an estimated number of 200,000 Lebanese remained internally displaced or refugees. Differently from the earthquake case now we know quite well the area affected by the event, then we can restrict our analysis to that.


Blocked access to potentialy malicious website: Type: outgoing

Panorama output size can be fixed to either a percentage of the optimum size, or to a certain number of megapixels. The output size is recalculated automatically after changing the projection or field of view.

However, before accurate image analysis can take place, two post-flight image processing procedures must be completed. The first process involves stitching or mosaicing, which “is the process of combining multiple images into a single seamless composite image” (Jensen 2005). This process may not be necessary if the area of interest is small enough to be acquired with a single image.


PTGui 11 continuously recalculates the control point distances in the background

Here is my test (lightroom missed the photos in the dark water and I only made a rough edit for the seam remove). I think I will get a licence for Pano2VR really soon.

Most existing panoramic blenders (including PTGui 11, Enblend, SmartBlend, AutoPano) use a multi-band pyramid blending algorithm. These blending algorithms do their work in the overlap region of the images and therefore need a certain amount of overlap. In the overlap region a gradual transition is made from the average brightness of one image to the next. Generally these algorithms cannot distinguish between brightness differences caused by exposure variation and brightness differences caused by moving objects; any moving objects in the overlap region remain visible as faint ghosts or halos. This happens even if the object is nearby the seam, but not actually cut through by it. Also, only the overlap region is available for equalizing brightness differences. If the overlap is narrow and the brightness difference large, the steep change in brightness will remain noticeable.


It's easiest to get started by downloading and installing the GitHub Desktop application. When you run GitHub Desktop, sign into your GitHub account when asked.

Table 1. Classification accuracy assessment for SPOT 5 errors of omission (producer’s accuracy). The accuracy was determined by randomly selecting 20 failures of each type from the aerial photographs and comparing them to the classified image.


PTGui Pro: Batch Stitcher can load and save 'Batch Lists', which contain a list of jobs to be stitched

I used content aware fill in Photoshop to fill the zenith hole. Doesn't always work, so you have to drop in a sky, but in this case it worked well.

Also, some scenes are not available because of the lack of the relevant raw imagery. This example is to show the concept of our automatic procedure and some tests on the system.


Fixed: Windows: crash if the drive containing temporary files is disconnected while PTGui is running

Clearly the tremendous situational awareness that can be gained from the use of aerial imagery for emergency situations is important, but not without difficulties. The platforms that have traditionally acquired this imagery have not been able to do so with the required temporal and spatial resolutions that would make them effective in emergency response situations. Recently however, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as viable platforms for the acquisition of high-resolution aerial imagery. UAVs are usually small aerial platforms that have the potential to be easily transported, assembled and quickly tasked to acquire near-real time high-resolution imagery. This allows first responders to emergency situations the ability to quickly and accurately assess the situation without putting personnel at risk. Currently “routine civil access to these various UAV assets is in an embryonic state and is only just now emerging” (Roper and Dutta 2005).

PTGui now embeds GPano metadata in .psd and .psb files, if the image is a spherical equirectangular panorama

Go to and click the Fork button at the top right. You must be signed into your GitHub account. This creates a copy of our 'master' repository in your own account. Your changes will be made to your forked repository. So called Pull Requests are used to synchronize changes made by multiple users back to our master repository.


The problem of bandwidth constraint exists for viewing large volume colour image online. To overcome this problem, a technique was developed to divides high-resolution images into bite-size tiles and deliver “pixels on demand”. Therefore, the data transmission is done only when there is a downloading demand, which allows high resolution images being transferred over all bandwidth environments.

Some benefits of PTGui

Fix: PTGui web viewer: intermittent freezing in Safari on OS 10/10. This is solved by having the viewer now using WebGL on Safari when available.


PTGui now stores its data files in the 'Application Data' folder

In case of Call 100, the procedure was started not until three days after the disaster peak and therefore caused a loss of valuable time. This time-delay can be avoided if the AU is better aware of the possibilities and limits of earth observation data. During the Call 100, first SPOT5 satellite data arrived at the VAA six days after the disaster peak. The availability of trained and well-prepared VAA that can advise the AU and can take over the project management, data pre-processing and value adding steps is very important. To change the operational tasking of an earth observation satellite is a difficult and time-consuming challenge that needs up to 24 hours time depending on the satellite system and the available ground stations. With the establishment of fast and easy to use data distribution networks and 24/7 operational distributors, project managers and VAA, time can be gained within each step of data delivery chain. The selection of appropriate sensors, which depends on the requirements of the affected region, is fundamental. Especially the spatial resolution but also other sensor specific properties as the spectral- and the radiometric resolution can affect the suitability of a sensor. Meteorological conditions and other external factors such as terrain-effects can additionally cause problems for the data processing. Not all satellite data is adequate for every disaster-type.

Although the CropCam has the capability of completing flights fully autonomously, remote control airplane skills are a definite asset for the ground support technician. Having these skills allows the ground control technician to control the aircraft while in PIC mode and to be selective on the landing locations, which can significantly increase the life span of the airframe and reduce the possibility of damaging the autopilot, batteries and camera. Currently the CropCam is rated for wind speeds of less than 30 km per hour. Although the aircraft will fly in winds greater than this, the flight stability and ability of the camera to capture accurate images becomes questionable. However, the acquisition of multiple images for a single location could be accommodated in such conditions. Another flight consideration is the space required to safely launch and land the CropCam. MicroPilot suggests a 90 m clearing for takeoff and landing if you land in PIC mode and double that if you will be requiring a CIC landing assuming 9 meter high trees on all sides (Wilde 2007).


Based on visual inspection of the stereo images of pre- and post-earthquake data, the results have been evaluated. A total of 619 buildings falling within the selected area of study were assessed and 251 buildings were labeled as ’collapsed’, 76 were labeled as ‘partially collapsed’ and 292 buildings were labeled as ‘no damage’. A high degree of agreement is evident between the assessment results and the reference data in the ‘collapse’ state. Of these buildings, 217 were correctly labeled as collapsed, providing a producer’s and user’s accuracy of 86/5% and 90/4% respectively. It appears that 34 buildings were omitted from the collapsed category and considered as ‘partially collapsed’, however, none of the collapsed building is labeled as ‘no damage’. The producer’s and user’s accuracies of ‘partially collapsed’ buildings were computed as 67/1% and 26/6% respectively. Thus, the user’s accuracy is significantly lower. It appears that 25 buildings were omitted from the ‘partially collapsed’ category. Of the total 292 buildings labeled as ‘no damage’, 118 were omitted from this category while 174 were labeled correctly. The producer’s and user’s accuracies of ‘no damage’ buildings were computed as 59/6% and 93/0% respectively.

This study evaluates the reliability of NEXRAD precipitation data and rain gauge measurements in Eastern Ontario, Canada, for potential flood monitoring and water budget analysis. Five-month daily rainfall data from NEXRAD and rain gauge measurements were collected and generated for two Eastern Ontario conservation authority regions. The NEXRAD data was evaluated using rain gauge measurements as the reference. A good correlation (0/78) exists between the daily NEXRAD precipitation data and rain gauge measurements, especially for heavier rainfalls. The result also shows that 62% of radar precipitation data underestimates the daily precipitation. This underestimate is more common when the rainfall is small. The evaluation of spatial patterns of rainfall suggests that radar precipitation shows a more continuous pattern than the interpolated surfaces from rain gauges. Considering that small rainfall events contribute a relatively small portion of the total precipitation, NEXRAD products can play an important role in real-time flood monitoring and water budget analysis during heavy rainfall events in Canadian regions within the working range distance of the NEXRAD system.


PTGui Viewer: Removed the Full Screen option from the right-click context menu in Flash mode, since this is no longer supported by Flash player. Full screen mode is still accessible through the full screen button at the top right of the displayed panorama, or by double clicking.

One problem with assigning slope stability in this way is the fact that debris slides tend to occur on metastable slopes (Scheidegger, 1991). These are slopes that are stable until a triggering event such as heavy precipitation or seismic shaking causes failure. Unstable slopes are unable to retain unconsolidated material in any significant quantities and will therefore experience a much lower incidence of debris slides.


If optimization fails, PTGui since version 8/1 asks whether the project should be re-initialized. This is no longer asked for projects with viewpoint optimization. Further this question can now be disabled in the Project Settings and by selecting the 'do not ask this again' checkbox. The OK/Cancel buttons have been replaced by more appropriate Yes/No buttons.

Fixed: Batch Builder: if the 'one subfolder per camera' configuration was used, the images in the generated projects would be sorted by the file names. This could result in unexpected swapping of images. Images are now sorted by the name of the containing folder.


All licenses purchased on or after 1st of August 2021 are valid for PTGui 12. If you purchased before this date, you may upgrade your license here. As always, one year of free updates is included with your purchase. A free trial version is available; you can use it nextto your current version by installing to a different folder.

For all details see theversion history. You can download PTGui 12 here, or use Help - Check for Updates to update your currently installed PTGui (additional hints) version.


Top: several avalanche tracks are clearly visible descending the eastern slopes of the mountain. Bottom: The classified image draped over the same area.

In order to proceed to assess the possible impact of the catastrophic event in the region the human settlements must be identified. In particular, pixels affected by a significant change and corresponding to the same town/city must be recognized. This problem can be managed by using Mathematical Morphology.